Real-Time ML-Assisted Hardware-in-the-Loop Electro-Thermal Emulation of LVDC Microgrid on the International Space Station

Weiran Chen, Songyang Zhang, Venkata Dinavahi
<span title="">2022</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">IEEE Open Journal of Power Electronics</a> </i> &nbsp;
For being the world's largest low voltage direct current (LVDC) microgrid (MG) in space, the power generation and distribution systems aboard the International Space Station (ISS) employ a hierarchical assortment of electric power sources, energy storage, control devices, power electronics, and loads operating cooperatively at multifarious system dispositions and multi-stage configurations. At the early phase of design, for such time-critical systems, the trade-off between reliability and
more &raquo; ... gence rate of device modeling, varying accuracy requirements of control flows, and especially the implementation for real-time performance have brought new challenges and problems for testing and validation of the MG. One of the solutions presented by this paper is to use the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) emulation, where the MG is emulated using the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware platform. In parallel with the emulation effort, comprehensive modeling solutions for both large-scale photovoltaic (PV) solar array wings (SAWs) and nonlinear behavior model (NBM) of insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) have been utilized based on machine learning (ML) concepts of artificial neural network (ANN) and recurrent neural network (RNN). Both system-level (validated by Matlab/Simulink) and device-level (validated by SaberRD) transient simulations are carried out, and the results exhibit high accuracy and fidelity of the models and significant improvements in execution speed and hardware resource consumption. INDEX TERMS Artificial neural network (ANN), electromagnetic transients, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), International Space Station (ISS), low voltage direct current (LVDC), machine learning (ML), microgrid (MG), photovoltaic, recurrent neural network (RNN), renewable energy, real-time systems, solar array wings (SAWs).
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1109/ojpel.2022.3160416</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:cdym6ygg6bhsdeqjnvbcn2dr2a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href=";arnumber=9737411&amp;isnumber=9669092&amp;ref=" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href=""> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> </button> </a>