Functional Fields in Human Auditory Cortex Revealed by Time-Resolved fMRI without Interference of EPI Noise

Francesco Di Salle, Elia Formisano, Erich Seifritz, David E.J. Linden, Klaus Scheffler, Claudio Saulino, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Friedhelm E. Zanella, Alessandro Pepino, Rainer Goebel, Elio Marciano
2001 NeuroImage  
The gradient switching during fast echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging (EPI-fMRI) produces loud noises that may interact with the functional activation of the central auditory system induced by experimental acoustic stimuli. This interaction is unpredictable and is likely to confound the interpretation of functional maps of the auditory cortex. In the present study we used an experimental design which does not require the presentation of stimuli during EPI acquisitions and allows
more » ... r mapping of the auditory cortex without the interference of scanner noise. The design relies on the physiological delays between the onset, or the end, of stimulation and the corresponding hemodynamic response. Owing to these delays and through a time-resolved acquisition protocol it is possible to analyze the decay of the stimulus-specific signal changes after the cessation of the stimulus itself and before the onset of the EPIacoustic noise related activation (decay-sampling technique). This experimental design, which might permit a more detailed insight in the auditory cortex, has been applied to the study of the cortical responses to pulsed 1000 Hz sine tones. Distinct activation clusters were detected in the Heschl's gyri and the planum temporale, with an increased extension compared to a conventional block-design paradigm. Furthermore, the comparison of the hemodynamic response of the most anterior and the posterior clusters of activation highlighted differential response patterns to the sound stimulation and to the EPI-noise. These differences, attributable to reciprocal saturation effects unevenly distributed over the superior temporal cortex, provided evidence for functionally distinct auditory fields.
doi:10.1006/nimg.2000.0683 pmid:11162273 fatcat:p3uwkq57ujhpnarqezgked76di