Early Detection of Myocardial Changes With and Without Dexrazoxane Using Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Mouse Model
BackgroundCancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction may occur in pediatric cancer survivors. Identification of early markers of myocardial damage secondary to anthracycline exposure is crucial to develop strategies that may ameliorate this complication. ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to identify early myocardial changes induced by doxorubicin with and without cardioprotection using dexrazoxane detected by serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a pre-clinical mouse
... ical mouse model.MethodsSerial CMR examinations were performed in 90 mice distributed in 3 groups: 45 received doxorubicin (DOX group), 30 mice received doxorubicin with dexrazoxane (DOX/DEX group) and 15 mice received saline injections (control group). We obtained the following CMR parameters in all mice: T2, extracellular volume quantification (ECV), myocardial deformation, and functional quantification.ResultsMyocardial edema assessed by T2 time was the earliest parameter demonstrating evidence of myocardial injury, most notable in the DOX group at week 4 and 8 compared with DOX/DEX group. Similarly, global longitudinal strain was abnormal in both the DOX and DOX/DEX groups. However, this change persisted only in the DOX group. The ECV was significantly elevated in the DOX group at the final CMR, while only minimally elevated in the DOX/DEX group. The right and left ejection fraction was decreased, along with the mass to volume ratio in the DOX group. The T2 time, ECV, and deformation correlated with ejection fraction and left ventricular volume. ConclusionsT2 time and deformation by CMR identifies early myocardial injury from anthracyclines. Dexrazoxne did not prevent the initial edema, but the inflammatory changes were not sustained. CMR may be useful for early detection of cardiac dysfunction. Serial CMR demonstrates dexrazoxane minimizes cardiac dysfunction and aids recovery in a mouse model.