Molecular and Nonmolecular Imaging of Macrophages in Atherosclerosis

Zhaoyue Li, Hao Tang, Yingfeng Tu
2021 Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine  
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic heart disease, and the increasing medical burden associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has become a major public health concern worldwide. Macrophages play an important role in all stages of the dynamic progress of atherosclerosis, from its initiation and lesion expansion increasing the vulnerability of plaques, to the formation of unstable plaques and clinical manifestations. Early imaging can identify patients at risk of coronary
more » ... herosclerotic disease and its complications, enabling preventive measures to be initiated. Recent advances in molecular imaging have involved the noninvasive and semi-quantitative targeted imaging of macrophages and their related molecules in vivo, which can detect atheroma earlier and more accurately than conventional imaging. Multimodal imaging integrates vascular structure, function, and molecular imaging technology to achieve multi-dimensional imaging, which can be used to comprehensively evaluate blood vessels and obtain clinical information based on anatomical structure and molecular level. At the same time, the rapid development of nonmolecular imaging technologies, such as intravascular imaging, which have the unique advantages of having intuitive accuracy and providing rich information to identify macrophage inflammation and inform targeted personalized treatment, has also been seen. In this review, we highlight recent methods and research hotspots in molecular and nonmolecular imaging of macrophages in atherosclerosis that have enormous potential for rapid clinical application.
doi:10.3389/fcvm.2021.670639 pmid:34095259 pmcid:PMC8169961 fatcat:ikmwtep7ibf6hleiuaikumxjyy