Osteoporosis in males and its association with tobacco; smokers and chewers
In men, osteoporosis is not a disease of over 50 anymore. Younger men are now being reported with bone injuries, illnesses and perioperative complications including delayed fracture-healing. Tobacco use has been found to have negative effects on the musculoskeletal system leading to decrease in bone mineral density. This study was aimed to determine the effects of tobacco, cigarette and chewable on bone mineral density. Methods: Free orthopedic camps in different towns of Karachi during 2014
... e set up where married males gathered to participate in this cross-sectional study. A total of 987 males, +45 years old, tobacco users (smokers or chewable, since+15 years), were recruited, after an informed signed consent. Bone mineral density, using random sampling technique by heel scan device was checked and subjects' information regarding diets, habits, medical & surgical history was obtained through interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results: The 668 subjects (mean age 44.4±9.8 years), habitual chewable tobacco users had mean bone mineral density (0.31±0.04) significantly (3.66 times) lower (p=0.004) compared to smokers (0.33±0.03g/cm2) and non tobacco users (CI-1.754, 8.437). Osteoporosis was detected in 20% of chewable tobacco users compared to 12% in smokers and 3.8% in non tobacco users. Highest frequency of osteoporosis was displayed by chewers of betel quid (18%) and gutka (17%) compared to Naswar (14%), areca nut(12%) and smokers(12.3%). Conclusion: Chewable tobacco is a very strong risk (OR 3.66 times) factor for lowering bone mineral density, which leads subsequently to osteoporosis in men compared to non tobacco users.