THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS AND TOOLS IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS

I Yaffe
unpublished
The success of the organization in meeting the strategic objectives set in the long-term depends on its ability to manage its workers' performances and on its ability to ensure that their measures of performance are commensurate with the organization's needs. As a result, the management of the organization's performances became a strategic issue for the organizations (Mello, 2011) . This article deals with issues of employee evaluation in organizations. It is useful to distinguish between the
more » ... guish between the 'system' performance appraisal and the 'process' of performance appraisal. The system includes the elements of forms of the appraisal and a feedback conversation between the worker and the direct manager. The appraisal process includes various biases, cognitive and other. The element of organizational politics may also be a bias in the evaluation process and organizations should address this and try to minimize these effects as much as possible. The term 'Performance Appraisal' addresses a broad group of activities, the goal of which is the improvement of the workers' performances. It focuses on ways to motivate workers to improve their performances. The goal of the process of the management of performances is to improve performances, at first on the level of the individual worker and eventually on the level of the organization (DeNisi & Pritchard, 2006) . Campbell (1999) defines performance in the organization as a collection of behaviors, the adoption of which is relevant to the achievement of the goals of the 2 company or the organization. The attainment of the organization's goals, or in other words, effectiveness, is the outcome of these behaviors. According to Campbell (1999) , the performance is composed of eight different factors: 1. Expertise in the performance of the tasks unique to the position. 2. Expertise in the performance of the tasks not unique to the position. Expertise in both written and oral communication related to the position. 4. Investment of effort in work (physical, intellectual, and mental). 5. Self-discipline (upholding the fulfillment of procedures, directives, etc.). 6. Interpersonal behavior (help of work colleagues). 7. Leadership (expressed in the ability to indicate a direction and influence others to follow). Management and administration. Research studies indicate that the direct performance, which includes the completion of the work tasks and the nature of the activity aimed at the completion of the position tasks, is determined by the expertise in the position (for instance, knowing the data and worker expertise), while the indirect (contextual) performance, which includes all that goes beyond the completion of the work tasks (such as how the worker fits into the staff, what his relations with other factors in the organization are), is determined by the worker's personality, achievement-oriented motivation, and believability (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993) . Performance Appraisal definitions. According to DeNisi and Pritchard (2006) , performance appraisal is an isolated event that is formally supported by the organization, generally does not occur very frequently (once or twice a year), when the organization declares clearly the criteria used in this process. From a different perspective, performances appraisal is a process which quantitative scores are given on the basis of the judgment of the workers' performances (DeNisi& Pritchard, 2006) . Cascio (1978) maintains that the performance appraisal plays an important role in the field of occupational psychology, out of the need to judge the workers' achievements and abilities, so as to obtain efficiency and effectiveness and better
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