A. J. Velvet, S. Vohra, T. David, B. Keavney, I. Bruce, B. Parker, K. Bratis
2021 Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  
Background:Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) with Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) has an established value in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies. Although CMRI is widely used for the detection of myocardial involvement in subclinical Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), its prognostic value has not been determined.Objectives:To determine the prognostic value of CMRI with LGE for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients
more » ... (MACE) in patients with SLE, and investigate its correlation with the severity of systemic inflammation.Methods:A retrospective tertiary single-centre review of patients with SLE who underwent a CMRI study at Manchester Foundation Trust between 2009-2020 was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups; those who experienced a MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke/TIA or heart failure) and those who did not. We compared cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, CMRI findings, SLE risk scores and biochemistry between the 2 groups.Results:We identified 20 female patients who underwent a CMRI, with a mean age of 46 years at the time of the scan. Indications for CMRI were assessment for worsening dyspnoea and new onset left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Table 1 demonstrates the clinical, laboratory and CMRI characteristics of the two groups. There were no significant differences in the clinical background and traditional CV risk factors between the 2 groups. 5/20 (25%) patients experienced a MACE. The SLEDAI-2K score was >12 in 2/5 (40%) of patients who suffered a MACE and they presented with a stroke within a year of CMRI study, suggesting that systemic inflammation contributes to poor vascular outcomes. 3/5 (60%) patients who reported a MACE demonstrated LGE on their CMRI study compared to 3/15 (20%) of those who did not (p-0.045). The LGE was predominantly diffuse, mid myocardial in distribution and not ischaemic in pattern, signifying a complex pathophysiological substrate in the development of myocardial pathology in SLE. Additionally, an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic volumes and left atrial diameter was noted in patients who had a MACE (p<0.05). Patients who had a MACE showed a higher incidence of valvular abnormalities and pericardial disease in their CMRI studies. On looking at the medications around the CMRI, the majority of MACE positive patients 4/5 (80%) were on conventional Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) such as Mycophenolate, Tacrolimus, Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate or hydroxychloroquine and none on biologics like Rituximab or Belimumab. While 9/15 of the MACE negative patients were on DMARDs and 4/15 were on biologics.Table 1.clinical, laboratory and CMRI characteristics of SLE patients with and without MACE. LVEDV-left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVESV-left ventricular end-systolic volume, LA-left atrial, LVEF-Left ventricular ejection fraction, SLEDAI- SLE Disease Activity Index, +ve-positive.MACE+ (n = 5)MACE- (n = 15)Mean age of SLE diagnosis (years)35.634.4Mean duration to CMRI (years)8.811.71Lupus nephritis 20%20%Raynaud's 40%27%Previous CV involvement02 SLEDAI-2K > 122(40%)11(73%)Lupus anticoagulant +ve20%27%Anticardiolipin +ve2(40%)2(14%)anti-dsDNA (iu/ml)+ve3(60%)6(40%)Low C3 (g/L)2(40%)6(40%)Mean prednisolone dose28.338.21 Conventional DMARDs4/5(80%)9/15(60%)Biologics0/54/15Mean LVEF (%)47.456.7CMR LGE3(60%)3(20%)Valvular abnormalities 2(40%) 4(27%)Mean LA area (cm2) 29.620.6Pericardial effusion 40%27%Conclusion:In our small SLE cohort, we add to existing knowledge that CMRI with LGE is an indispensable tool to investigate cardiac involvement in SLE and may indeed add important prognostic information. Larger scaled studies are required to confirm the use of CMRI with LGE as a predictor of MACE in patients with SLE.Disclosure of Interests:None declared
doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-eular.2748 fatcat:h65e7ezbpneo3nmp6n2zvjjawm