A schema of method

Christian A. Ruckmich
1914 Psychological review  
This paper owes its origin to a study of the historical development of psychological methods to which the writer recently turned his attention. In the course of the investigation, it was soon evident that historically, as well as latterly, the term method had assumed a variety of connotations in the literature of the science. An attempt was made, therefore, to determine exactly what these connotations were and to group them under the proper rubrics. The problem, then, changed from a survey of
more » ... thod in general to a classification of the varieties of method. Accordingly a study of the interpretation of psychological methods as outlined in more than a score of treatises was begun. The present article is the result. Its purpose is not to offer an exhaustive logical critique of the concept, 2 but to specify the several usages of the term which were actually found in the literature. After this systematic study has been made, obviously a more adequate review of the historical development of method in its several aspects can then be begun. 3 •The article presents, in a revised form and with greater regard for detail, the essential points advanced in the introductory section of a paper which was read before the American Psychological Association, December 30, 1913. * For discussions of this order, the reader is referred to the standard works on methodology and logic, e. %.It is the intention of the writer to publish in the near future a study of this development in terms of the present classification. The methods of psychology are, in general, the two methods of every science: description (that is, analysis and classification) and explanation. But besides these 1 Similar examples can be found in such works as Baldwin's 'Handbook of Psychology,' Vol. I, New York, 1890, 22ff.; James's 'Principles of Psychology,' Vol. 1, New York, 1890, i8sff.; Kiilpe's 'Outlines of Psychology' (trans. Titchener), London and New York, 1895, 8ff.; Ladd's 'Elements of Physiological Psychology,' New York, 1887, 6ff.; and in an address on 'Psychological Methods' by W. McDougall, published in 'Lectures on the Method of Science,' Oxford, 1906, H3ff.
doi:10.1037/h0072468 fatcat:3lst6q2xvnfdnh2oquddnbh5wy