TRAP1 suppresses oral squamous cell carcinoma progression by reducing oxidative phosphorylation metabolism of Cancer-associated fibroblasts
Background Glucose metabolism in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within the tumor microenvironment is a material and energy source for tumorigenesis and tumor development. However, the characteristics and important regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism in fibroblasts associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still unknown. Methods We successfully isolated, cultured, purified and identified CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs). Cell culture, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and
... K8, flow cytometry, Seahorse XF Analyzer, MitoTracker assay, western blotting (WB), transmission electron microscope, Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF), and Label-free quantitative proteomics assay, animal xenograft model studies and statistical analysis were applied in this study. Results We demonstrated that the proliferation activity of CAFs was significantly enhanced as compared to NFs, while the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased. CAFs in OSCC preferentially use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) rather than glycolysis. Moreover, CAFs showed stronger maximal respiration, a larger substantial mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity (SRC) and higher adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production capacity than NFs. The results of mitotracker green fluorescence staining showed that compared with NFs, CAFs exhibited stronger green fluorescence. The results of WB showed the expression level of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) obviously increased in CAFs compared to NFs. These results confirmed that CAFs have greater mitochondrial activity and function than NFs. Furthermore, Label-free quantitative proteomics assays showed that both ATP synthase subunit O (ATP5O) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) are important differentially expressed proteins in the mitochondria of CAFs/NFs. Overexpression of TRAP1 in CAFs increased basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR), maximal respiration, ATP production and SRC. In vivo, overexpression TRAP1 expression in CAFs suppress tumor growth. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicated that TRAP1 is an important regulatory molecule of CAFs glucose metabolism and promotes OSCC progression by regulating the OXPHOS of CAFs.