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Thin, nearly conformal films are required for semiconductor applications to function as diffusion barriers, adhesion layers and seed layers within trenches and vias. The deposition of high mass refractory films with conventional, noncollimated magnetron sputtering at low pressures shows better-than-expected conformality which is dependent on the degree of directionality of the depositing atoms: the conformality increases as the directionality increases. The primary cause appears to be adoi:10.1116/1.588562 fatcat:gpiju2ornjc2tmeoisl5xumkym