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Keller's Personalized System of Instruction has been an important innovation in higher education. Although the success of PSI is far reaching, it is not without critics. Keller and other PSI advocates report that many PSI failures were due to people not adhering carefully to the PSI principles and components. This paper addressesthis problem from an instructional systems design perspective and the results suggest that modifications to PSI can be done successfully. Moreover, a systematicdoi:10.21432/t27s50 fatcat:dvgtpp6v5vah7eckhe5m2qlxvi