Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Population-Based Study
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background A population-based study to describe the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Prospective, population-based study including pregnant women consecutively attended at first/second trimester or at delivery at three hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and IgM/IgA) were measured in all participants and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR was performed at delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of pregnancy complications in SARS-CoV-2 positive versus
... -2 positive versus negative women: miscarriage, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, perinatal death, small-for-gestational age, neonatal admission. Secondary outcomes were components of the primary outcome plus abnormal fetal growth, malformation, intrapartum fetal distress. Outcomes were also compared between positive symptomatic and positive asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 women. Results Of 2,225 pregnant women, 317 (14.2%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (n=314, 99.1%) and/or RT-PCR (n=36, 11.4%). Among positive women, 217 (68.5%) were asymptomatic, 93 (29.3%) had mild COVID-19 and 7 (2.2%) pneumonia, of which 3 required intensive care unit admission. In women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the primary outcome occurred in 43 (13.6%) and 268 (14%), respectively [risk difference -0.4%, (95% CI: -4.1% to 4.1)]. As compared with non-infected women, women with symptomatic COVID-19 had increased rates of preterm delivery (7.2% vs. 16.9%, p=0.003) and intrapartum fetal distress (9.1% vs. 19.2%, p=0.004), while asymptomatic women had similar rates to non-infected cases. Among 143 fetuses from infected mothers, none had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgA in cord blood. Conclusions The overall rate of pregnancy complications in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to non-infected women. However, symptomatic COVID-19 was associated with modest increases in preterm delivery and intrapartum fetal distress.