Microcomputed Tomography Characterization of Neovascularization in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

Simon Young, James D. Kretlow, Charles Nguyen, Alex G. Bashoura, L. Scott Baggett, John A. Jansen, Mark Wong, Antonios G. Mikos
2008 Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews  
Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis have been studied for decades using numerous in vitro and in vivo systems, fulfilling the need to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these processes and to test potential therapeutic agents that inhibit or promote neovascularization. Bone tissue engineering in particular has benefited from the application of proangiogenic strategies, considering the need for an adequate vascular supply during healing and the challenges associated with the vascularization of
more » ... folds implanted in vivo. Conventional methods of assessing the in vivo angiogenic response to tissue-engineered constructs tend to rely on a twodimensional assessment of microvessel density within representative histological sections without elaboration of the true vascular tree. The introduction of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) has recently allowed investigators to obtain a diverse range of high-resolution, three-dimensional characterization of structures, including renal, coronary, and hepatic vascular networks, as well as bone formation within healing defects. To date, few studies have utilized micro-CT to study the vascular response to an implanted tissue engineering scaffold. In this paper, conventional in vitro and in vivo models for studying angiogenesis will be discussed, followed by recent developments in the use of micro-CT for vessel imaging in bone tissue engineering research. A new study demonstrating the potential of contrast-enhanced micro-CT for the evaluation of in vivo neovascularization in bony defects is described, which offers significant potential in the evaluation of bone tissue engineering constructs.
doi:10.1089/ten.teb.2008.0153 pmid:18657028 pmcid:PMC2761680 fatcat:64u2w447wra6jhdnwlmu3ezb2i