Comparison of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole with Ampicillin in Acute Infectious Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: A Double-Blind Crossover Study
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Two separate acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or chronic asthmatic bronchitis were treated in 20 patients in a double-blind crossover study. One course of treatment consisted of 320 mg of trimethoprim (TMP) plus 1,600 mg of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) daily and the other of 2 g of ampicillin daily; each drug was given for 14 days. Patients were observed initially, twice a week during therapy, and weekly after therapy. Observations that were recorded included graded chest symptoms
... nd physical findings, vital signs, pulmonary function, hematologic parameters, and objective sputum measurements (daily volume, purulence, differential quantitative cytology, quantitative bacterial counts, physical properties, levels of lactate dehydrogenase with its isoenzymes, levels of myeloperoxidase, and presence of deoxyribonucleic acid fibers). Both antibiotic regimens were effective in resolving these acute bacterial exacerbations. Paired z-test analysis revealed few and minor differences between TMP-SMZ and ampicillin during therapy, although three patients did not complete TMP-SMZ therapy because of adverse reactions. However, the period between the two bacterial exacerbations was significantly longer after ampicillin therapy. Innovative in this investigation are the study design and the objective quantitative measurements of inflammatory response and bacterial populations in sputum.