Cloud-Resolving Modeling: ARM and the GCSS Story

Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, Ann M. Fridlind
2016 Meteorological Monographs  
Creation of GCSS (a) First documents: Browning et al. (1993) . (b) "The focus of GCSS is on cloud systems spanning the mesoscale rather than on individual clouds. Observations from field programs will be used to develop and validate the cloud-resolving models, which in turn will be used as test-beds to develop the parameterizations for the large-scale models." (c) Four different cloud system types were chosen to study: boundary layer, deep convective precipitating, frontal, and cirrus. (d)
more » ... nd cirrus. (d) Working groups were formed for all of the cloud system types. The WGs organized model intercomparison studies and meetings to present results of the intercomparisons. ARM Data and Single-Column Modeling (a) The ARM program was established to improve the understanding of atmospheric radiation and its interaction with clouds and cloud processes. The goal was to make measurements of atmospheric radiation and the atmospheric properties that affect it at five (later reduced to three) fixed sites for up to 10 years, and to use the measurements to test cloud and radiation parameterizations of varying complexity. (b) Randall et al. (1996) proposed to use field data such as that collected by ARM together with single-column models (SCMs) and cloud ensemble models to test physical parameterizatins used or to be used in GCMs. (c) Winter 1994 Single Column Model IOP led by David Randall. Starting with this IOP, seasonal SCM IOPs were conducted at the Southern Great Plains to enhance the frequency of observations for SCM uses, particularly vertical soundings of temperature, water vapor, and winds. The SCM IOPs are conducted for a period of 21 days. During that time, radiosondes are launched at the Central Facility and the four boundary facilities eight times per day, 1
doi:10.1175/amsmonographs-d-15-0047.1 fatcat:wy6uuthsgff6tgxq2bqtnf44gm