Differential diagnosis of infectious watery diarrhea (view from time immemorial to the present). Modern approaches to rehydration

I. N. Zakharova, I. V. Berezhnaya, A. T. Kamilova, D. K. Dmitrieva, D. I. Akhmedova
2021 Medical Council  
Today, as in ancient times, diarrhea (loss of water and electrolytes along with stool) accompanies many pathological conditions in humans. The pathophysiology of various types of diarrhea has been studied, which made it possible to optimize therapeutic approaches and save the lives of many people. The most dangerous conditions occur in young patients with osmotic and exudative types of diarrhea, as they result in exicosis within a short time. In arriving at a diagnosis, rehydration therapy
more » ... d be started as soon as possible. The article presents the historical aspects associated with the global pandemics of cholera. The history of the creation of solutions for intravenous and oral rehydration is covered. The authors presented tables for calculating fluid losses and the required volume of solutions for oral or parenteral administration. The modern requirements for rehydration solutions and the principles of rehydration in children are presented. Oral rehydration is particularly problematic for young children due to the limited range of drugs and requirements for the composition of solutions used in pediatrics. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization and ESPGHAN, clinical recommendations of the Russian Federation, low-osmolar solutions should be used. When complex solutions containing probiotic and zinc are used, the therapy compliance increases. A rehydration solution, which contains a weighted amount of salt for the preparation of a low-osmolar solution, as well as the probiotic L. reuteri DSM 17938 at least 1 billion of viable bacteria and zinc sulphate 0.004 g is one of the latest solutions. The results of studies of this solution are provided.
doi:10.21518/2079-701x-2021-11-188-200 fatcat:7yirjas7y5cjxonv2w5ocgp45m