Wavelet-Based Fractal Analysis of rs-fMRI for Classification of Alzheimer's Disease

Alishba Sadiq, Norashikin Yahya, Tong Boon Tang, Hilwati Hashim, Imran Naseem
2022 Sensors  
The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) modality has gained widespread acceptance as a promising method for analyzing a variety of neurological and psychiatric diseases. It is established that resting-state neuroimaging data exhibit fractal behavior, manifested in the form of slow-decaying auto-correlation and power-law scaling of the power spectrum across low-frequency components. With this property, the rs-fMRI signal can be broken down into fractal and nonfractal
more » ... ponents. The fractal nature originates from several sources, such as cardiac fluctuations, respiration and system noise, and carries no information on the brain's neuronal activities. As a result, the conventional correlation of rs-fMRI signals may not accurately reflect the functional dynamic of spontaneous neuronal activities. This problem can be solved by using a better representation of neuronal activities provided by the connectivity of nonfractal components. In this work, the nonfractal connectivity of rs-fMRI is used to distinguish Alzheimer's patients from healthy controls. The automated anatomical labeling (AAL) atlas is used to extract the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent time series signals from 116 brain regions, yielding a 116 × 116 nonfractal connectivity matrix. From this matrix, significant connections evaluated using the p-value are selected as an input to a classifier for the classification of Alzheimer's vs. normal controls. The nonfractal-based approach provides a good representation of the brain's neuronal activity. It outperformed the fractal and Pearson-based connectivity approaches by 16.4% and 17.2%, respectively. The classification algorithm developed based on the nonfractal connectivity feature and support vector machine classifier has shown an excellent performance, with an accuracy of 90.3% and 83.3% for the XHSLF dataset and ADNI dataset, respectively. For further validation of our proposed work, we combined the two datasets (XHSLF+ADNI) and still received an accuracy of 90.2%. The proposed work outperformed the recently published work by a margin of 8.18% and 11.2%, respectively.
doi:10.3390/s22093102 pmid:35590793 pmcid:PMC9100383 fatcat:kd7u5hs66ngnfindtulb4jnjna