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This paper presents a survey of elastic matching (EM) techniques employed in handwritten character recognition. EM is often called deformable template, flexible matching, or nonlinear template matching, and defined as the optimization problem of two-dimensional warping (2DW) which specifies the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between two subjected character image patterns. The pattern distance evaluated under optimized 2DW is invariant to a certain range of geometric deformations. Thus, by usingdoi:10.1093/ietisy/e88-d.8.1781 fatcat:zlcm7bwznvgb7bw4jqbi44dzcq