Multicast Routing Algorithms
Multicasting on the Internet and its Applications
In the age of multimedia and high-speed networks, multicast is one of the mechanisms by which the power of the Internet can be further harnessed in an efficient manner. When more than one receiver is interested in receiving a transmission from a single or a set of senders, multicast is the most efficient and viable mechanism. In the protocol stack of the network, multicast is best implemented in the network layer in the form of a multicast routing protocol to select the best path for the
... ssion. The other layers of the protocol stack provide additional features for multicast. This paper deals with how multicasting is implemented in the Internet (IPv4). With emphasis on the implementation of multicast at the network layer the implementation of additional features for multicast at the other layers of the protocol stack are presented. The network layer is concerned with routing of the data in an efficient manner with minimal duplication of data to the various receivers. The features of the routing protocols that have been proposed for best effort as well as QoS-based multicast are analyzed. Some of the issues and open problems related to multicast implementation and deployment are discussed along with an overview on how multicast service is deployed in some of the existing backbone networks. 1 Author for further correspondence multimedia applications and Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS). The multicast applications can be divided into the following categories: Single-point to multi-point e.g. Audio-Video broadcasts, Database updates, Push applications Multi-point to multi-point e.g. Video-conferencing, Distance Learning, Multiplayer Games Multi-point to single-point e.g. Resource Discovery, Data Collection, Auctions Address Range Uses 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 Administrative functions and system level routing chores (always sent with TTL of 1) 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 Multicast end user applications within groups, intranets and Internet 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124 Locally administered or site specific multicast applications 5 The Waxman model, where nodes in the network are placed at random points in a two-dimensional grid. Links are added to the network by considering all possible pairs of nodes and then deciding whether a link should exist according to a probability function. The probability function is based on how far apart the two nodes are and how many links are expected to exist in the whole network. 6 All the nodes in this model are routers. Graphs are repeatedly checked for connectivity, which ensures that resulting sub-graph is chosen at random from all possible graphs.