MENAKAR IDEOLOGI REPUBLIK ISLAM IRAN: KONTESTASI ANTARA IDEOLOGI DAN PRAGMATISME DALAM POLITIK A. Kemal Riza

Universitas Islam, Negeri Sunan, Ampel Surabaya, Jl Yani, Surabaya
unpublished
Iran declared as an Islamic state since its 1979 Islamic revolution. Since leadership of Ayatullah Khomeini, Islamic ideology has been carried out in all levels of the state. In politics, it was conducted by creating wilayah al-faqih, in which the ulama plays important and decisive role. Iran even tried to expand this ideology outside its border, especially in areas with considerable number of Shi'i population. However, in its practice, the implementation of this Islamic ideology should also
more » ... logy should also accommodate pragmatism and other aspects that contradict that ideology, namely nationalism and cultural pluralism. In politics, this is reflected by the emergence of ideologists and reformists-pragmatists. This dichotomy can be witnessed in presidential elections. While Ali Khamenei and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are considered ideologists, Ali Akbar Rafsanjani, Muhammad Khatami and Hassan Rouhani are reformists-pragmatists. Ideological expansion which was proven backfired was also put on halt. In social-cultural expression of the society, there is growing trend to identify Iran using pre-Islamic symbols. This is happen mostly among younger generation who do not take part in the 1979 revolution. Abstrak: Iran adalah sebuah negara yang mengumumkan sebagai Negara Islam modern sejak revolusi Islam di tahun 1979. Di bawah kepemimpinan Ayatullah Khomeini, ideologi Islam dilaksanakan dalam berbagai cara dan mekanisme, antara lain kepemimpinan ulama (wilâyah al-faqîh) yang tercermin dalam peran sentral ulama dalam politik kenegaraan dan implementasi besar-besaran nilai-nilai keislaman dalam politik dan kehidupan sosial. Iran bahkan berusaha melakukan ekspansi ideologi Islam mereka ke wilayah-wilayah Islam lainnya, khususnya yang memiliki paham Syi'ah yang sama. Akan tetapi, dalam praktiknya upaya ini tidak dapat dilaksanakan secara murni tanpa
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