Growth Differentiation Factor 15 for Risk Stratification and Selection of an Invasive Treatment Strategy in Non ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
Background-An invasive treatment strategy improves outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome at moderate to high risk. We hypothesized that the circulating level of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) may improve risk stratification. Methods and Results-The Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease II (FRISC-II) trial randomized patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an invasive or conservative strategy with a follow-up
... for 2 years. GDF-15 and other biomarkers were determined on admission in 2079 patients. GDF-15 was moderately elevated (between 1200 and 1800 ng/L) in 770 patients (37.0%), and highly elevated (Ͼ1800 ng/L) in 493 patients (23.7%). Elevated levels of GDF-15 independently predicted the risk of the composite end point of death or recurrent myocardial infarction in the conservative group (Pϭ0.016) but not in the invasive group. A significant interaction existed between the GDF-15 level on admission and the effect of treatment strategy on the composite end point. The occurrence of the composite end point was reduced by the invasive strategy at GDF-15 levels Ͼ1800 ng/L (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.73; Pϭ0.001), between 1200 and 1800 ng/L (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.00; Pϭ0.048), but not Ͻ1200 ng/L (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.65; Pϭ0.81). Patients with ST-segment depression or a troponin T level Ͼ0.01 g/L with a GDF-15 level Ͻ1200 ng/L did not benefit from the invasive strategy. Conclusions-GDF-15 is a potential tool for risk stratification and therapeutic decision making in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome as initially diagnosed by ECG and troponin levels. A prospective randomized trial is needed to validate these findings. The online-only Data Supplement, consisting of tables, is available with this article at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/ CIRCULATIONAHA.107.697714/DC1.