Netrin 1 contributes to vascular remodeling in the subventricular zone and promotes progenitor emigration after demyelination

M. Cayre, S. Courtes, F. Martineau, M. Giordano, K. Arnaud, A. Zamaron, P. Durbec
2013 Development  
Neural stem cells are maintained in the adult brain, sustaining structural and functional plasticity and to some extent participating in brain repair. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms and factors involved in endogenous stem/progenitor cell mobilization is a major challenge in the promotion of spontaneous brain repair. The main neural stem cell niche in the adult brain is the subventricular zone (SVZ). Following demyelination insults, SVZ-derived progenitors act in concert with
more » ... drocyte precursors to repopulate the lesion and replace lost oligodendrocytes. Here, we showed robust vascular reactivity within the SVZ after focal demyelination of the corpus callosum in adult mice, together with a remarkable physical association between these vessels and neural progenitors exiting from their niche. Endogenous progenitor cell recruitment towards the lesion was significantly reduced by inhibiting post-lesional angiogenesis in the SVZ using anti-VEGF blocking antibody injections, suggesting a facilitating role of blood vessels for progenitor cell migration towards the lesion. We identified netrin 1 (NTN1) as a key factor upregulated within the SVZ after demyelination and involved in local angiogenesis and progenitor cell migration. Blocking NTN1 expression using a neutralizing antibody inhibited both lesion-induced vascular reactivity and progenitor cell recruitment at the lesion site. We propose a model in which SVZ progenitors respond to a demyelination lesion by NTN1 secretion that both directly promotes cell emigration and contributes to local angiogenesis, which in turn indirectly facilitates progenitor cell emigration from the niche.
doi:10.1242/dev.092999 pmid:23824572 fatcat:p2ai6g44xjh4pijkwpbjbymeuy