NUTRITIONAL AND NUTRACEUTICAL POTENTIAL OF WILD EDIBLE MACROLEPIOTOID MUSHROOMS OF NORTH INDIA
Wild edible mushrooms viz. Macrolepiota dolichaula, M. procera, and M. rhacodes are widely consumed in India partly because of their taste, flavour and due to their rich nutritional and nutraceutical credentials. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the proximate composition including mineral elements, heavy metals (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Se, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As), and certain nutraceutical components (flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids and phenolic compounds) in these mushrooms.
... in these mushrooms. Methods: The samples were analyzed for proximate chemical composition (moisture, proteins, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash) using the AOAC procedures.The concentrations of minerals and heavy metals in the samples were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometerFor nutraceutical composition crude extracts were prepared from mushroom parts using methanol as the solvent following standard protocols. Results: Proximate analysis revealed that these mushrooms contained 16.45-19.95% protein, 2.9-3.4% fat, 2.5-5.1% crude fibre, 56.2-68.19% carbohydrates, 1.93-7.3% ash and 7.8-8.8% moisture, besides 5-28 mg/100g Ca, 143-254 mg/100g Mg, 5-9 mg/100g Cu, 241-276 mg/100g Fe, 1-5 mg/100g Mn, 0.06-0.09 mg/100g Zn, 0.06-0.10 mg/100g Se, 0.062-0.087 mg/100g Hg, 0.0014-0.0019 mg/100g Cd and 0.074 mg/100g As. Mushrooms were found to be good sources of bioactive compounds like phenolics which are ranged from 5.9-16.81 mg/g phenolics, flavonoids 1.36-1.76 mg/g, alkaloids 0.048-0.103 mg/g, β-carotene 0.12-0.29 μg/gm and lycopene 0.05-0.12 μg/gm (dw). Conclusion: This study shows that these mushrooms needs to be domesticated for their large scale production and subsequent use as a source of natural nutrients and nutraceutics so as to promote health, taking advantage of the additive and synergistic effects of different nutritional and bioactive compounds present in them.