Optical biometry and influence of media opacity due to cataract on development of axial length in NorthEast Indian paediatric patients- A prospective study
To study the influence of media opacity due to cataract on the development of axial length in paediatric patients from North-East India, using optical biometry. This is a prospective, observational study, including consecutive patients attending the paediatric ophthalmology clinic, over a period of 1 year. Patients with other ocular and systemic diseases, unfit for optical biometry measurements due to dense cataract, nystagmus and strabismus were excluded and rest divided into three groups
... proper age matching - 1. Group A (Bilateral cataract) 2. Group B (Unilateral cataract) 3. Group C (Bilateral normal). The axial length of the various groups was analysed using independent sample test (for bilateral cataract group) and paired t-test (for unilateral cataract group). Linear regression analysis between age and axial length was done. A total of 177 patients were included.80 cases in Group A (bilateral cataract), 18 cases in Group B (unilateral cataract) and 79 in Group C (bilateral normal) The mean age of the patients in all the groups was 8.88 ± 3.51 years (range: 1-17 years). The bivariate analysis and simple linear regression revealed a statistically significant correlation between age and AL in case of cataractous eyes. (Pearson's coefficient: 0.341, p < 0.001). The mean AL was significantly longer (p = 0.013) in the cataractous eyes (mean = 23.38 ± 2.08 mm) of Group A(bilateral cataract) in the 7-12 years age group as compared to the bilaterally normal eyes (mean AL = 22.57 ± 0.70 mm) of patients in the same age group in Group C. The mean AL of cataractous eyes in group B (unilateral cataract) (mean = 22.46 ± 1.73 mm) as compared to the fellow normal eyes, (mean = 21.87 ± 0.97 mm) was not statistically significant. Cataractous eyes have an abnormal axial length development. The influence of media opacity due to cataract on development of axial length in paediatric eyes in the North-East Indian population is variable, in line with global data on the same. Although there is some influence of media opacity, the exact nature is not clearly understood and may have a crucial interaction with genetic and other environmental factors. Genetic testing integrated with biometric analysis is recommended for further understanding of the ocular growth and development.