Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Treuth, Margarita S., Anne L. Adolph, and Nancy F. Butte. Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Endocrinol. Metab. 38): E12-E18, 1998.-The purpose of this study was to predict energy expenditure (EE) from heart rate (HR) and activity calibrated against 24-h respiration calorimetry in 20 children. HR, oxygen consumption (V O 2 ), carbon dioxide production (V CO 2 ), and EE were measured during rest,
... sured during rest, sleep, exercise, and over 24 h by room respiration calorimetry on two separate occasions. Activity was monitored by a leg vibration sensor. The calibration day (day 1) consisted of specified behaviors categorized as inactive (lying, sitting, standing) or active (two bicycle sessions). On the validation day (day 2), the child selected activities. Separate regression equations for V O 2 , V CO 2 , and EE for method 1 (combining awake and asleep using HR, HR 2 , and HR 3 ), method 2 (separating awake and asleep), and method 3 (separating awake into active and inactive, and combining activity and HR) were developed using the calibration data. For day 1, the errors were similar for 24-h V O 2 , V CO 2 , and EE among methods and also among HR, HR 2 , and HR 3 . The methods were validated using measured data from day 2. There were no significant differences in HR, V O 2 , V CO 2 , respiratory quotient, and EE values during rest, sleep, or over the 24 h between days 1 and 2. Applying the linear HR equations to day 2 data, the errors were the lowest with the combined HR/activity method (Ϫ2.6 Ϯ 5.2%, Ϫ4.1 Ϯ 5.9%, Ϫ2.9 Ϯ 5.1% for V O 2 , V CO 2 , and EE, respectively). To demonstrate the utility of the HR/activity method, HR and activity were monitored for 24 h at home (day 3). Free-living EE was predicted as 7,410 Ϯ 1,326 kJ/day. In conclusion, the combination of HR and activity is an acceptable method for determining EE not only for groups of children, but for individuals.