Solvolysis of Kraft Lignin to Bio-Oil: A Critical Review

Abraham Castro Garcia, Shuo Cheng, Jeffrey S. Cross
2020 Clean Technologies  
Lignin, a component of lignocellulosic biomass, is abundant and is produced extensively as a waste product of the Kraft pulping process, lignin obtained from this process is called Kraft lignin (KL). Lignin's three-dimensional structure composed of aromatic alcohols (monolignols) makes it a potential source of renewable aromatic chemicals or bio-oil, if depolymerized. Among all the depolymerization methods for KL, solvolysis is the most popular, showing consistently high bio-oil yields. Despite
more » ... the large number of studies that have been carried out, an economically feasible industrial process has not been found and comparison among the various studies is difficult, as very different studies in terms of reaction media and catalysts report seemingly satisfactory results. In this review, we compare and analyze KL solvolysis studies published, identify trends in bio-oil composition and give a comprehensive explanation about the mechanisms involved in the processes. Additional commentary is offered about the availability and future potential of KL as a renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals, as well as logistical and technical aspects.
doi:10.3390/cleantechnol2040032 fatcat:fqdq4q2rczgafovr6fmmtrdksi