Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the head-and-neck using SMURF fat-water imaging with chemical shift and relaxation rate corrections

Beata Bachrata, Siegfried Trattnig, Simon Daniel Robinson
To address the challenges posed by fat-water chemical shift artifacts and relaxation rate discrepancies to quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) outside the brain, and to generate accurate susceptibility maps of the head-and-neck at 3 and 7 Tesla. Simultaneous Multiple Resonance Frequency (SMURF) imaging was extended to 7 Tesla and used to acquire head-and-neck gradient echo images at both 3 and 7 Tesla. Separated fat and water images were corrected for Type 1 (displacement) and Type 2
more » ... e discrepancy) chemical shift artefacts, and for the bias resulting from differences in T1 and T 2 ∗ relaxation rates, recombined and used as the basis for QSM. A novel phase signal-based masking approach was used to generate head-and-neck masks. SMURF generated well-separated fat and water images of the head-and-neck. Corrections for chemical shift artefacts and relaxation rate differences removed overestimation of the susceptibility values, blurring in the susceptibility maps, and the disproportionate influence of fat in mixed voxels. The resulting susceptibility maps showed high correspondence between the paramagnetic areas and the locations of fatty tissues and the susceptibility estimates were similar to literature values. The proposed masking approach was shown to provide a simple means of generating head-and-neck masks. Corrections for Type 1 and Type 2 chemical shift artefacts and for fat-water relaxation rate differences, mainly in T1 , were shown to be required for accurate susceptibility mapping of fatty-body regions. SMURF made it possible to apply these corrections and generate high-quality susceptibility maps of the entire head-and-neck at both 3 and 7 Tesla.
doi:10.1002/mrm.29069 pmid:34850446 pmcid:PMC7612304 fatcat:z32eexd5hzdzhgfwsdoepn5v54