System integration of large-scale wind power in the Netherlands

B.C. Ummels, M. Gibescu, E. Pelgrum, W.L. Kling
2006 2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting  
This paper presents the results of a simulation of system operation in the Netherlands in the presence of future large-scale wind energy production. The study is aimed at identifying bottlenecks in system planning and operation due to wind integration, in particular base-load and ramp rate problems. These may constraint the amount of wind that can be accommodated given a projected production park of dispatchable units and yearly load profile by 2012. Wind data from 2004-2005, interpolated to
more » ... interpolated to existing locations for onshore and planned locations for offshore wind parks, were used to create a realistic yearly wind energy output profile. The unit commitment and economic dispatch formulation includes ramp rate constraints for generation schedules and reserve activation as well as minimum up-and down times. Of particular interest in this study are the combined heat & power (CHP) units, which impose additional constraints coupling their heat and energy production. Since no insight was available into the aggregated predictability of wind generation, both a 0-MW prediction, where conventional units are scheduled to meet the total load, and a perfect prediction have been investigated. No forms of electrical or heat storage were considered. The results show no ramp rate problems in the Dutch system by 2012, however base-load problems may arise at high wind penetration levels, only to be prevented by wasting available wind resources.
doi:10.1109/pes.2006.1709154 fatcat:2yinniawobazfol4pjo4rwwkei