Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding
This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amino acid content. The investigation was
... arried out during the period 1983-2010. The programme included 16 cultivars and 18 B lines with their analogues. Interspecific, intraspecific, and intergeneric hybridization produced hybrid materials originating from 38 Helianthus species with different ploidy levels, 9 annuals and 29 perennials, and 28 species from other genera of family Compositae. New sunflower forms and lines created possessed resistance to downy mildew, Phomopsis, Phoma and Alternaria, tolerance to Sclerotinia and total resistance to the different races of parasitic broomrape. The new forms had distinctive plant architecture, different vegetation periods, and seeds of different sizes and coloration. New B/A and R lines, characterized with high combining ability, seed oil, and fatty acid content and varying protein amino acid contents were obtained. Fifteen sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) were obtained from interspecific hybrids and 271 sources of fertility restoration (Rf) genes from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Five new oil type hybrids and one confectionery type were developed and registered. The results from this investigations showed that by wide hybridization new genetic material can be transferred to the cultivated sunflower. These results supplemented the contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization for sunflower breeding.