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Network covert channels are used to hide communication inside network protocols. Within the last decades, various techniques for covert channels arose. We surveyed and analyzed 109 techniques developed between 1987 and 2013 and show that these techniques can be reduced to only 11 different patterns. Moreover, the majority (69.7%) of techniques can be categorized in only four different patterns, i.e. most of the techniques we surveyed are very similar. We represent the patterns in a hierarchicaldoi:10.1145/2684195 fatcat:d5tpu4zp3zgdjd5qb6e7u5ps5a