Design and Synthesis of a Novel NIR Celecoxib-Based Fluorescent Probe for Cyclooxygenase-2 Targeted Bioimaging in Tumor Cells
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) imaging agents are potent tools for early cancer diagnosis. Almost all of the COX2 imaging agents using celecoxib as backbone were chemically modified in the position of N-atom in the sulfonamide group. Herein, a novel COX-2 probe (CCY-5) with high targeting ability and a near-infrared wavelength (achieved by attaching a CY-5 dye on the pyrazole ring of celecoxib using a migration strategy) was evaluated for its ability to probe COX-2 in human cancer cells. CCY-5 is
... cells. CCY-5 is expected to have high binding affinity for COX-2 based on molecular docking and enzyme inhibition assay. Meanwhile, CCY-5 caused stronger fluorescence imaging of COX-2 overexpressing cancer cells (Hela and SCC-9 cells) than that of normal cell lines (RAW 264.7 cells). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW264.7 cells revealed an enhanced fluorescence as LPS was known to induce COX-2 in these cells. In inhibitory studies, a markedly reduced fluorescence intensity was observed in cancer cells, when they were co-treated with a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Therefore, CCY-5 may be a selective bioimaging agent for cancer cells overexpressing COX-2 and could be useful as a good monitoring candidate for effective diagnosis and therapy in cancer treatment.