Blinov, L. M.; Fridkin, V. M.; Palto, S.P.; Bune, A. V.; Dowben, Peter A.; and Ducharme, Stephen, "Two-Dimensional Ferroelectrics" (2000). Stephen Ducharme Publications. 51. Abstract. The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of $ 200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were $ 200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir ±
... e. Langmuir ± Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir ± Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric ± paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the twodimensional layers.