Geographical Notes [stub]

1886 Science  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 160 160 S CIENCE. S CIENCE. term ' caldera' is proposed and used as a general name for volcanic orifices of the Hawaiian type. As the column of lava gradually melts away the enclosing rocks, the caldera is enlarged by the falling-in of the surface, and it is not in any case due to explosions. Mauna Loa and Kilauea are clearly independent volcanoes; and we have no reliable indications that their activity is diminishing. The vast antiquity of the Hawaiian volcanoes is plainly shown, not only by their magnitude, but also by the wonderful progress of the agents of erosion, especially in those islands where the volcanic fires are now extinct. This is one of the principal topics discussed in the chapters on Maui and Oahu. The abstract of the report by Mr. J. S. Curtis on the mining geology of the Eureka district, Nevada, supplements that by Mr. Arnold Hague on the general geology of the same district in the preceding volume. It is accompanied by sections of the principal workings, and discusses exhaustively the characteristics and probable origin of these singular ore-deposits, which had yielded sixty millions of dollars up to the close of 1882. Following this is a short but useful chapter on popular fallacies regarding precious metal oredeposits by Mr. Albert Williams, jun. Dr. C. A. White's review of the Ostreidae of North America, with an appendix by Mr. Heilprin, and thirtyeight plates, describes in simple yet scientific language all the known fossil species and the single living species of the Atlantic coast. A second appendix by Mr. Ryder, with eleven plates, is devoted to an interesting sketch of the life-history of the oyster. The volume concludes with Mr.
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