The Stagger-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models

Z. Magic, A. Weiss, M. Asplund
2014 Astronomy and Astrophysics  
We investigate the relation between 1D atmosphere models that rely on the mixing length theory and models based on full 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) calculations to describe convection in the envelopes of late-type stars. The adiabatic entropy value of the deep convection zone, s_bot, and the entropy jump, {\Delta}s, determined from the 3D RHD models, are matched with the mixing length parameter, {\alpha}_MLT, from 1D hydrostatic atmosphere models with identical microphysics (opacities and
more » ... cs (opacities and equation-of-state). We also derive the mass mixing length, {\alpha}_m, and the vertical correlation length of the vertical velocity, C[v_z,v_z], directly from the 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar subsurface convection. The calibrated mixing length parameter for the Sun is {\alpha}_MLT (s_bot) = 1.98. For different stellar parameters, {\alpha}_MLT varies systematically in the range of 1.7 - 2.4. In particular, {\alpha}_MLT decreases towards higher effective temperature, lower surface gravity and higher metallicity. We find equivalent results for {\alpha}_MLT ({\Delta}s). Also, we find a tight correlation between the mixing length parameter and the inverse entropy jump. We derive an analytical expression from the hydrodynamic mean field equations that motivates the relation to the mass mixing length, {\alpha}_m, and find that it exhibits qualitatively a similar variation with stellar parameter (between 1.6 and 2.4) with a solar value of {\alpha}_m = 1.83. The vertical correlation length scaled with the pressure scale height yields for the Sun 1.71, but displays only a small systematic variation with stellar parameters, the correlation length slightly increasing with Teff. We derive mixing length parameters for various stellar parameters that can be used to replace a constant value. Within any convective envelope, {\alpha}_m and related quantities vary a lot.
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423760 fatcat:6yboqdm4lfgq5dyapirrk5uedy