Generosity and Philanthropy: A Literature Review

René Bekkers, Pamala Wiepking
2007 Social Science Research Network  
We present an overview of the academic literature on philanthropy, divided in two parts: 1. Who gives how much; 2. Why people give. In part 1 we survey the literature on characteristics of individuals and households that are related to giving. In part 2, we identify eight mechanisms as the most important forces that drive giving: (1) awareness of need; (2) solicitation; (3) costs and benefits; (4) altruism; (5) reputation; (6) psychological benefits; (7) values; (8) efficacy. We evaluate the
more » ... gress in the almost 500 studies we reviewed and suggest directions for future research on philanthropy. Chicago, the Civil Society Congress, May 31, 2007, Utrecht, and the WWAV Academy, June 4, 2007, Woerden. We thank the audiences for helpful comments and suggestions. Thanks to various colleagues who provided articles we could not find and who clarified their findings. This is work in progress. The current version refers to almost 500 publications. We welcome any comments at, including suggestions on papers not mentioned yet. An updated version of this paper can be found at:
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1015507 fatcat:7ryr2dqypjf4nfma2nsqypdoem