The Arabidopsis condensin CAP-D subunits arrange interphase chromatin
SUMMARYCondensins are best known for their role in shaping chromosomes. However, other functions as organizing interphase chromatin and transcriptional control have been reported in yeasts and animals. Yeasts encode one condensin complex, while higher eukaryotes have two of them (condensin I and II). Both, condensin I and II, are conserved in Arabidopsis thaliana, but so far little is known about their function. Here we show that the A. thaliana CAP-D2 (condensin I) and CAP-D3 (condensin II)
... 3 (condensin II) subunits are highly expressed in mitotically active tissues. In silico and pull-down experiments indicate that both CAP-D proteins interact with the other condensin I and II subunits. Our data suggest that the expression, localization and composition of the condensin complexes in A. thaliana are similar as in other higher eukaryotes. Previous experiments showed that the lack of A. thaliana CAP-D3 leads to centromere association during interphase. To study the function of CAP-D3 in chromatin organization more in detail we compared the nuclear distribution of rDNA, of centromeric chromocenters and of different epigenetic marks, as well as the nuclear size between wild-type and cap-d3 mutants. In these mutants an association of heterochromatic sequences occurs, but nuclear size and the general methylation and acetylation patterns remain unchanged. In addition, transcriptome analyses revealed a moderate influence of CAP-D3 on general transcription, but a stronger one on transcription of stress-related genes. We propose a model for the CAP-D3 function during interphase, where CAP-D3 localizes in euchromatin loops to stiff them, and consequently separates centromeric regions and 45S rDNA repeats.