Substance deposition assessment in obstructed pulmonary system through numerical characterization of airflow and inhaled particles attributes

Antonios Lalas, Stavros Nousias, Dimitrios Kikidis, Aris Lalos, Gerasimos Arvanitis, Christos Sougles, Konstantinos Moustakas, Konstantinos Votis, Sylvia Verbanck, Omar Usmani, Dimitrios Tzovaras
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making</a> </i> &nbsp;
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are considered as the two most widespread obstructive lung diseases, whereas they affect more than 500 million people worldwide. Unfortunately, the requirement for detailed geometric models of the lungs in combination with the increased computational resources needed for the simulation of the breathing did not allow great progress to be made in the past for the better understanding of inflammatory diseases of the airways through detailed
more &raquo; ... delling approaches. In this context, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations accompanied by fluid particle tracing (FPT) analysis of the inhaled ambient particles are deemed critical for lung function assessment. Also they enable the understanding of particle depositions on the airways of patients, since these accumulations may affect or lead to inflammations. In this direction, the current study conducts an initial investigation for the better comprehension of particle deposition within the lungs. More specifically, accurate models of the airways obstructions that relate to pulmonary disease are developed and a thorough assessment of the airflow behavior together with identification of the effects of inhaled particle properties, such as size and density, is conducted. Our approach presents a first step towards an effective personalization of pulmonary treatment in regards to the geometric characteristics of the lungs and the in depth understanding of airflows within the airways. Methods: A geometry processing technique involving contraction algorithms is established and used to employ the different respiratory arrangements associated with lung related diseases that exhibit airways obstructions. Apart from the normal lung case, two categories of obstructed cases are examined, i.e. models with obstructions in both lungs and models with narrowings in the right lung only. Precise assumptions regarding airflow and deposition fraction (DF) over various sections of the lungs are drawn by simulating these distinct incidents through the finite volume method (FVM) and particularly the CFD and FPT algorithms. Moreover, a detailed parametric analysis clarifies the effects of the particles size and density in terms of regional deposition upon several parts of the pulmonary system. In this manner, the deposition pattern of various substances can be assessed.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1186/s12911-017-0561-y</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:29297393</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmcid:PMC5751792</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:kcescbgf45cdplxiggnrsjz5ym</a> </span>
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