Osmanlı Döneminde Kudüs'e Yahudi Göçü, İdari ve Sosyal Yapı ile Okullar

Ahmet Rıfat GÜZEY
2020 Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi  
Öz Osmanlı dönemindeki seyyahlarının en önde gelen ismi olan Evliya Çelebi'nin meşhur Seyahat-nâmesini okuduğumuzda, Mescid-i Aksa konusunda mabede o günün şartlarında 800 kişinin hizmet ettiği geniş bir teşkilatlanmanın mevcut olduğu gözümüze çarpıyor. Bu harika teşkilatlanmayı sağlayan da tabii ki Osmanlı Devleti'nin bölgeye olan desteği idi. Mescid-i Aksa'da Ehl-i Sünnet Mezheplerden her birinin, birer hatibi ve imamı bulunması dışında, elli de müezzin mevcuttu. Diğer hizmet erbabını da buna
more » ... et erbabını da buna ekleyince bakım işlerinin geniş bir yapıya sahip olduğu görülmektedir. Evliya Çelebi'den aldığımız bilgiler doğrultusunda, Osmanlı Cihan Devleti'nin bu eski ve mübarek ibadethaneye ne kadar büyük bir önem verdiğini göstermektedir. İslâm âleminin önemli mabetlerinden Mescid-i Aksa altı Osmanlı padişahı tarafından çeşitli onarımlarla yenilenmiştir. Şu andaki mevcut kubbesi 1752 tarihinde III. Osman tarafından yaptırıldı. Avlusunda, yağmur duası için namaz kılınacağı sırada kullanılan ve görüntüsüyle harika bir sanat eseri olduğu mesajını veren bir minber vardır. 1388 yılında inşa edilen bu minberin mermer sütunları hemen dikkat çekiyor. Bir diğer alanda Memluk'lerin 1482 yılında yaptığı şadırvanı, mabetteki en orijinal şadırvan olarak dikkatleri çekerken bugün eski görüntüsünü korumakta. Üstelik hemen yanında Eyyubi sanat eseri bir başka yuvarlak şadırvan daha mevcuttur. Harem-i Şerif-i bezeyen Kubbetü'l-Mirac, Kubbetü'n-Nebi, Kubbetü'l-Yusuf gibi diğer küçük yapıların hemen hepsinin Osmanlı'dan izler taşıdığını ve daha evvelinden kalan izlerin de itina ile korunmaya çalışıldığını görüyoruz. Osmanlılarla birlikte bu topraklarda kesintisiz 401 yıl hüküm süren bir Türk-İslâm medeniyeti tüm izleriyle bizleri kendine ram ediyor. Devlet-i Âli Osman'ın burada sağladığı barış ve güven atmosferi bugün yerini gerginlik ve kargaşaya bırakmış olmasına rağmen Kudüs'te yaşayanlar Türk'ün şefkat, merhamet ve adaletini bekliyor. Abstract Evliya Celebi, who has been the prominent explorer of the Ottoman period, described al-Masjid al-Aqsa in his famous travelogue called the Seyâhatnâme as "800 people are in service in al-Masjid-al-Aqsa. This enormous organization provided with the support of the Ottoman State. One preacher and one imam for every four sects and also fifty muezzins have been employed in al-Aqsa. Contrast other professional experts considering these numbers". This information we acquired from Evliya Celebi shows the importance that Ottoman State attached to this old and holy sanctuaries. Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, one of the most important sanctuaries of Islam, has been restored by six Sultans of the Ottoman. One dome remains standing was built by the command of Osman the 3rd in 1752. A gorgeous minbar stands in the courtyard which was built to use during rain prayer. Marble pillars of this minbar which built 1388, are still conspicuous. Mamluk water-tank in another vicinity that built 1482 remain standing, is accepted as the most original water-tank in Palestine is alongside with another tank with a sphere dome, which was an artwork of Ayyubids. Almost all of the small structures such as the Dome of the Ascension, Dome fo the Spirits and Jussef Dome decorates Haram al-Sharif carry the trace of Ottoman. A Turkish-Islamic civilization that reigns these lands uninterrupted for 401 years, subjugate us with all traces. Although the atmosphere of peace and reliance mediated through the Sublime Ottoman State has turned into civil disorder, the people who live in Jerusalem still expecting for the mercifulness and fairness of Turks. Extended Abstract Jerusalem, which is one of the oldest motherlands of humanity, has always been the apple of mankind in terms of being a homeland for nearly 20 Prophets. This beautiful city attracts attention, for this reason, makes emotions alive that Tanpınar stated in lines; "Neither I'm in nor completely out of the time; The indivisible flow of wide and solid moment" and surrounds all timelines lived. Breathing in such mystic geography that spiritual atmosphere excites souls, makes you feel like a time traveller having the head in the clouds and make you live all inner pleasures together. Jerusalem was also acknowledged as a sacred city by three great Prophets his holiness Moses, Jesus and Mohammad (PBUH). Due to the added value of this reason, Jerusalem couldn't be shared in historical periods, passed from one hand to another and consequently, the smell of gunpowder in these lands has never been lacking. Floating rock is one of the most interesting points in al-Aqsa where His holiness Mohammad (PBUH) ascended. The myth of Jerusalem is an arcane story of three religions and members of these beliefs. Because the word "Jerusalem" reminds of the struggle for existence of these three beliefs and their members. In absence of this faith, Jerusalem is just a city without any charm that consist of stone, wood and concrete. Extraordinary aura and life experiences make this ancient city special and charming. Mystery in such incidents ensouls all objects in this city. The importance of Jerusalem in both religious and political terms and the fact that the people living in and around it belongs to different social structures and beliefs add many different features to the city. In this sense, it is natural that in the city where people who have more common characteristics, they have more common interests. From this point of view, religion is the main common point in the identity of the believers living in the city, spread to all places in Jerusalem. This sacred city is esteemed for mankind because of the points mentioned and much more unnamed sentimental values above. Jerusalem, being named due to its sanctity, has besieged forty times during its history, destroyed 29 times partly and 3 completely. It is sacred because many civilizations such as Assyrian, and finally Palestine had the risk and excitement to fight for this city. These features, of course, inspire everyone to the excitement of investigating Jerusalem, peak the instinct to understand the reasons for the struggle and disagreements for this sacred city. Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa is the orphan of the ummah fell into pieces. Tired of its position. Mehmet Akif İnan, who considered commendable recently in literature as one of the "Seven Beautiful Man", illustrated Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa as; "I dreamed Al-Aqsa last night, as a child crying, Sidled over and pinned my forehead to its doorstep, gurgling like an underground river", in his emotional poetry. This tragical condition of the unhappy masjid hit him hard as every Muslim. Turks built many buildings such as mosque, madrasah, inn, bath, arch, bridge, bastion, prayer, imaret, fountain, water channel, fortification, complex and bazaar in Palestine and Jerusalem. Isn't it meaningful that British who took over the city after Turks dismantled the Abdul Hamid II clock tower in the city of Al-Khalil, showing a great example of vandalism? One wanders and tears up when you say Jerusalem like in the lines in poetry; "One half of my heart is Mecca and the other half is Medina; there is Jerusalem as a tulle on it".
doi:10.24106/kefdergi.697853 fatcat:pnd4f3pgpja4hbuzblx7phhtai