Geocoding Japanese Walking Directions using Sidewalk Network Databases [chapter]

Masatoshi Arikawa, Kouzou Noaki
Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography  
This paper proposes an advanced method of geocoding for walking directions in documents using daily local expressions. Walking directions are usually described in casual expressions, but not in regular ones like address. Thus, it has been considered practically impossible to geocode walking directions. However, sidewalk network databases in major cities of Japan have been available for human navigation services with GPS-equipped mobile phones since 2003. The databases can be expected to enable
more » ... expected to enable more advanced geocoding for larger scale natural language expressions. We first introduce the core schema of sidewalk network databases. Then, we explain a structure of walking directions in Japanese, and propose FRS (Formal Route Statement) to represent and process walking directions by means of a computer. Finally, prototype systems which have been developed based on our proposed framework are presented. INTORODUCTION While the mount of information is increasing on the Internet, retrieving the information on the Internet has become indispensable in our daily life. When we want to have a tasty meal with our friends, we get information of restaurants from the Internet using search engines for some keywords. However, it is not easy to get exact information because there are billions of documents and the number of them is increasing. It may cause us inconvenience when we find information using computers, especially local information like restaurants. We assume that the inconvenience stems from the difference in the framework of managing information between our brains and the current computer systems. One of people's methods of memorizing information is associated with locations. Examples of this thinking are "Mr. Suzuki who lives in Tokyo", "a good Chinese noodle shop under the elevated rail" and "an important file in the second drawer of my desk". In other words, locations remind people of their memories. We define these descriptions which correspond to the region in the real world as geo-referenced descriptions. The purpose of this research is to consider the framework to deal with information using geo-referenced descriptions as one of the important keys referring to the information. We have studied a method of converting geo-referenced descriptions like addresses and place names into their corresponding geographic coordinates [1] . The process of converting descriptions into coordinates is called geocoding. In this paper, we focus on walking directions as a new type of target to geocode.
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-36728-4_17 dblp:series/lngc/ArikawaN07 fatcat:sfulbqnt4vdtfjg2bxmfgyxski