Development of Particle Image Velocimetry for In-Vitro Studies of Arterial Haemodynamics [article]

Nicolas Buchmann, University Of Canterbury
Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are amongst the largest causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, causing considerable monetary pressure on public health systems worldwide. Atherosclerosis is characterised by the build up of vascular plaque in medium and large arteries and is a direct precursor to acute vascular syndromes such a myocardial infarction, stroke or peripheral arterial diseases. The causative factors leading to CVD still remain relatively
more » ... orly understood, but are becoming increasingly identifiable as a dysfunction of the endothelial cells that line the arterial wall. It is well known that the endothelium responds to the prevailing fluid mechanic (i.e. haemodynamic) environment, which plays a crucial role in the localised occurrence of atherosclerosis near vessel bends and bifurcations. In these areas, disturbed haemodynamics lead to flow separation and very low wall shear stress (WSS), which directly affects the functionality of the endothelium and impedes the transport of important blood borne agonists and antagonists. Detailed full field measurements assessing complex haemodynamics are sparse and consequently this thesis aims to address some of the important questions related to arterial haemodynamics and CVD by performing in-vitro flow measurements in physiologically relevant conditions. In particular, this research develops and uses state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to measure three-dimensional velocity and WSS fields in scaled models of the human carotid artery. For this purpose, the necessary theoretical and experimental concepts are developed and in-depth analyses of the underlying factors affecting the local haemodynamics and their relation to CVD are carried out. In the first part, a methodology for the construct of transparent hydraulic flow phantoms from medical imaging data is developed. The arterial geometries are reproduced in optically clear silicone and the flowing blood is modelled with a refractive index matched [...]
doi:10.26021/1526 fatcat:vttaudkeineodkirizhppikvui