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Since the boom of smart phones and location services, spatio-temporal data (i.e., user locations with timestamps) have become increasingly essential in many real-life applications. To ensure these data are faithfully extracted from the underlying loc tracking hardware and not altered by any malicious party or the user himself/herself, integrity assurance schemes such as digital signatures or message authentication codes (MAC) must be adopted. However, these conventional schemes disclose to thedoi:10.31142/ijtsrd14567 fatcat:gdwmehrkqvftjlakqwhzubl6ua