Metrology and microscopic picture of the integer quantum Hall effect

J. Weis, K. von Klitzing
2011 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  
Since 1990, the integer quantum Hall effect has provided the electrical resistance standard, and there has been a firm belief that the measured quantum Hall resistances are described only by fundamental physical constants-the elementary charge e and the Planck constant h. The metrological application seems not to rely on detailed knowledge of the microscopic picture of the quantum Hall effect; however, technical guidelines are recommended to confirm the quality of the sample to confirm the
more » ... ness of the measured resistance value. In this paper, we give our present understanding of the microscopic picture, derived from systematic scanning force microscopy investigations on GaAs/(AlGa)As quantum Hall samples, and relate these to the technical guidelines.
doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0198 pmid:21930559 fatcat:ay5seu7vj5aovhcccw2k5h4nje