Energetic Limitations Of Thermophilic Methanogens And Thiosulfate Reducers In The Subsurface Biosphere At Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents [thesis]

Lucy C Stewart
2015
Nearly 25 years ago federal officials unearthed over 400 skeletal remains in Lower Manhattan. The site of the excavation was the New York African Burial Ground (NYABG), a 17th- and 18th-century cemetery for the city's mostly enslaved African population. Today, the burial ground serves as a reminder of New York's 200-year experiment with slavery. It is the first National Monument to honor enslaved African New Yorkers. This recognition is a testament to the resolve of African American descendants
more » ... and their allies who, through political activism, would see these ancestors afforded in death some of the respect denied them in life. Descendant community activism also paved the way for the site's interdisciplinary investigation, the NYABG Project. Recovering complex diasporic biohistories from the NYABG was a major scientific undertaking made more challenging and rewarding by the project's high standards of public inclusion and accountability. Co-developed by community members and scholars, the NYABG Project now stands as a model of critically engaged biocultural anthropology. This dissertation study draws upon and continues the work of NYABG researchers. It is a reconstruction of early life lead exposure via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of dental enamel. With its high inorganic content, enamel provides a stable chemical record of an individual's diet, nutrition and pollution events, which in turn reflect political, economic and cultural factors. For this population, relatively high levels of skeletal lead suggest time spent in the Americas while low levels more likely indicate birth in Africa prior to forced migration. Here, lead concentrations in enamel that forms during the first several years of life are measured, mapped microspatially, and rendered as chronological age profiles. Mean differences and distribution/age profiles are compared for 44 NYABG children and adults in order to determine their African or American birthplaces and related health and cultural experience [...]
doi:10.7275/7403929.0 fatcat:drq2f53xsrhajnc7emwrcafpr4