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An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a highly nonlinear dynamic and complex engineering system whose operation is constrained by operational limits, including emissions, noise, peak in-cylinder pressure, combustion stability, and actuator constraints. To optimize today's ICEs, seven to ten control actuators and 10–20 feedback sensors are often used, depending on the engine applications and target emission regulations. This requires extensive engine experimentation to calibrate the enginedoi:10.3390/en14196251 fatcat:qhkjp37py5fjbdpoh47zraws7u