Research on Building Mechanism of System for Intelligent Service Mobile Robot
Mobile Robots - Control Architectures, Bio-Interfacing, Navigation, Multi Robot Motion Planning and Operator Training
Introduction With the development of computer, communication, automation and system integration technologies, advanced research in service mobile robot has made rapid process. The modern intelligent service mobile robot (ISMR), viewed as an every day life "partner", has entered a critical period of industrialization. It not only takes place of people to do dirty, dull and dangerous (3D) work, but also becomes people's friend and chummy assistant in the future. But how to design robot system
... ntifically and efficiently is a hot issue in robotics because the design of robotic system is often so complex that it is difficult to seek underlying problem-solving approach. The lack of integrated methods with reuse approaches leads robotic developers to reinvent the wheel each time a new project starts (Chella et al., 2010) .Until today, the methods for designing intelligent robot may be concluded two approaches which are "Trial and error "and "Repeated optimization" (Nehmzow, 2003). So many researches have begun to study in this area from both robotic science and engineering. To sum up, there are mainly two research ideas which are "seek for systematic and scientific methodology" and "seek for general system architecture" for striving to achieve "methods reuse" and "architecture reuse". As for seeking for systematic and scientific methodology, there are many arguments in robotics. In the same time, there are two research thoughts for designing intelligent robot (Joseph et al., 2004), one is "top-down" which is based on symbolic processing; and the other is "bottom-up" which is based on principles from biology. Currently, the two research methods are coexisting and have comprehensive integration trend. Pfeier provided the synthetic methodology of "understanding by building" (Pfeier, 2005). They mainly include two views of "constructing a model-computer or robot" and "abstract general principles from the model". He had concluded some principles including emergence, diversitycompliance, time perspectives, frame-of-reference, three constituents, complete agent, parallel loosely coupled process, sensory-motor coordination, cheap design, redundancy, ecological balance and value for guiding people to design intelligent system. Yavuz had proposed a new conceptual approach to the design of hybrid control architecture for autonomous mobile robots (Yavuz, 2002). It took the advantages of various control structure and then integrated them using comprehensive methods. And then, he proposed an integrated approach to the conceptual design and development of an intelligent www.intechopen.com Mobile Robots -Control Architectures, Bio-Interfacing, Navigation, Multi Robot Motion Planning and Operator Training 82 autonomous mobile robot (Yavuz, 2007). A clearer view of the design approach based on function-oriented interdisciplinary were shown and the main functions of intelligent autonomous mobile robot were divided into Mobility, Navigation and Autonomy. Similarily, corresponding to design needs, five non-functional requirements including simple overall structure, cost effective, robust structure, intelligent and adaptive behaviour, and reliable operation were provided. Finally, those requirements were decomposed into smaller functions which could be performed by mechanical, electronic and software system through FD tree. In short, with the increased complexity of the system, the relationship between functional modules become more and more complex, so the overall system analysis and design still face many difficulties. As for seeking for general architecture, many scholars tend to explore a common system reference model to reduce the duplication of design process. Architecture is the backbone of building complex intelligent systems (Ève coste-Manière, 2000). It can describe clearly that how the system is down into subsystem and how the subsystem achieves the overall function through the interaction of organic. Appropriate architecture make the robot system analysis become simple, so general architecture research has made some progress. For example, NASA and NBS's NASREM level reference model (Albus et al. 1989), Zeebo open architecture(Bogdan, 2006), ROACS(Real-time open-architecture control system) (Gu. J.s, 2004) and Daqing Wang's MRR (Modular and re-configurable robot) (Daqing wang, 2006), but they sill lack of effective methods of that how to analyze and design robotic system based on architecture systematically. On the whole, in order to solve the difficult problems, we need to consider it from two aspects. One is the research of the scientific, systematic analysis methods, which is related to robotic development; and the other is the research of architecture, which is related to system model. In essence, the robotic system is a complex information process system. But it is different from the computer, and its design must be considered together with the hardware and software. The systematic and comprehensive analysis of the intelligent service robot is still rare and not unified modelling methods and tools so far. Therefore, it is imperative to explore new methodological guidance for building mechanism. Our proposal tries to merge the strong points of the study methods mentioned above while minimizing their weak points, provide an open architecture for ISMR, and then explore the building mechanism of system for intelligent service mobile robot from metasynthesis's point of view. The chapter is organized as follows. The features of analysis and design for ISMR are introduced in section 2. The metasynthesis of open architecture for ISMR is discussed in section 3. And the development model based on architecture is proposed in section 4. the system model based on Agent is provided in section 5. Finally, take a specific example to illustrate the efficiency and rationality of building mechanism in section 6. In addition, conclude and discuss this new methodological guidance of system analysis for ISMR and further research directions.