Bio-fortification of Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) with Beta Carotene
Asian Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Research
Alike other cereals, maize is deficient in certain essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan. While lysine is critical in protein synthesis for the growth of tissues and important in the absorption of calcium from the intestinal mucosa, tryptophan is the biological precursor of B-vitamin and niacin. Increasing protein quality alone may have a displacement effect on the efficiency of provitamin A, carotenoid bio-conversion and utilization. The research was designed to improve the
... y protein maize with beta carotene in order to further enhance its nutritional content by hybridization, through the conventional method of breeding, using randomize complete block design (RCBD). Materials used were quality protein maize (white endosperm) genotype and yellow (rich in beta carotene) maize. Pollination was manually conducted and controlled, to exclude the possibility of unwanted pollination. Harvested seeds indicated a successful cross of both varieties as seen in the pigmentation of the hybridized maize seeds, which appeared pale yellow. However, the two varieties and their hybrid seeds harvested were subjected to laboratory analysis to compare their nutritional content. All the data collected were subject to statistical analysis using SPSS and mean separated by DMRT at 5% probability level. The result shows that individual varieties were higher in crude protein (13.5%) for yellow maize and Quality protein maize (12.9%), than the hybrid QYM (11.9%). Similarly, hybrid maize seed had higher percentage of lysine (1.37%), tryptophan (0.54%) and methionine (0.85%) than the individual varieties. Also the ear diameter correlated positively to 100 seeds weight.