Recent advances in the noninvasive detection of high-frequency oscillations in the human brain
Reviews in the Neurosciences
AbstractIn recent decades, a significant body of evidence based on invasive clinical research has showed that high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a promising biomarker for localization of the seizure onset zone (SOZ), and therefore, have the potential to improve postsurgical outcomes in patients with epilepsy. Emerging clinical literature has demonstrated that HFOs can be recorded noninvasively using methods such as scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Not
... are HFOs considered to be a useful biomarker of the SOZ, they also have the potential to gauge disease severity, monitor treatment, and evaluate prognostic outcomes. In this article, we review recent clinical research on noninvasively detected HFOs in the human brain, with a focus on epilepsy. Noninvasively detected scalp HFOs have been investigated in various types of epilepsy. HFOs have also been studied noninvasively in other pathologic brain disorders, such as migraine and autism. Herein, we discuss the challenges reported in noninvasive HFO studies, including the scarcity of MEG and high-density EEG equipment in clinical settings, low signal-to-noise ratio, lack of clinically approved automated detection methods, and the difficulty in differentiating between physiologic and pathologic HFOs. Additional studies on noninvasive recording methods for HFOs are needed, especially prospective multicenter studies. Further research is fundamental, and extensive work is needed before HFOs can routinely be assessed in clinical settings; however, the future appears promising.