Detecting Drowsy Learners at the Wheel of e-Learning Platforms with Multimodal Learning Analytics

Ryosuke Kawamura, Shizuka Shirai, Noriko Takemura, Mehrasa Alizadeh, Mutlu Cukurova, Haruo Takemura, Hajime Nagahara
2021 IEEE Access  
Learners are expected to stay wakeful and focused while interacting with e-learning platforms. Although wakefulness of learners strongly relates to educational outcomes, detecting drowsy learning behaviors only from log data is not an easy task. In this study, we describe the results of our research to model learners' wakefulness based on multimodal data generated from heart rate, seat pressure, and face recognition. We collected multimodal data from learners in a blended course of informatics
more » ... nd conducted two types of analysis on them. First, we clustered features based on learners' wakefulness labels as generated by human raters and ran a statistical analysis. This analysis helped us generate insights from multimodal data that can be used to inform learner and teacher feedback in multimodal learning analytics. Second, we trained machine learning models with multiclass-Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF) and CatBoost Classifier (CatBoost) algorithms to recognize learners' wakefulness states automatically. We achieved an average macro-F1 score of 0.82 in automated user-dependent models with CatBoost. We also showed that compared to unimodal data from each sensor, the multimodal sensor data can improve the accuracy of models predicting the wakefulness states of learners while they are interacting with e-learning platforms. INDEX TERMS Drowsiness, online education, e-learning platforms, multimodal learning analytics, physical learning analytics.
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3104805 fatcat:nkmz62lle5de5ph3mlnnn7dmne