Union-Find with Constant Time Deletions [chapter]

Stephen Alstrup, Inge Li Gørtz, Theis Rauhe, Mikkel Thorup, Uri Zwick
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A union-find data structure maintains a collection of disjoint sets under makeset, union and find operations. Kaplan, Shafrir and Tarjan [SODA 2002] designed data structures for an extension of the unionfind problem in which elements of the sets maintained may be deleted. The cost of a delete operation in their implementations is the same as the cost of a find operation. They left open the question whether delete operations can be implemented more efficiently than find operations. We resolve
more » ... s open problem by presenting a relatively simple modification of the classical union-find data structure that supports delete, as well as makeset and union, operations in constant time, while still supporting find operations in O(log n) worst-case time and O(α(n)) amortized time, where n is the number of elements in the set returned by the find operation, and α(n) is a functional inverse of Ackermann's function.
doi:10.1007/11523468_7 fatcat:xkel5ldv6bcxlkh7mlxancpony