Mechanisms of temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma - a comprehensive review

Neha Singh, Alexandra Miner, Lauren Hennis, Sandeep Mittal
2020 Cancer Drug Resistance  
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and has an exceedingly low median overall survival of only 15 months. Current standard-of-care for GBM consists of gross total surgical resection followed by radiation with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the firstchoice chemotherapeutic agent in GBM; however, the development of resistance to TMZ often becomes the limiting factor in effective treatment. While O6-methylguanine-DNA
more » ... nine-DNA methyltransferase repair activity and uniquely resistant populations of glioma stem cells are the most well-known contributors to TMZ resistance, many other molecular mechanisms have come to light in recent years. Key emerging mechanisms include the involvement of other DNA repair systems, aberrant signaling pathways, autophagy, epigenetic modifications, microRNAs, and extracellular vesicle production. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinically relevant molecular mechanisms and their extensive interconnections to better inform efforts to combat TMZ resistance.
doi:10.20517/cdr.2020.79 fatcat:iceizc4fkrdqbdjilgckuimjki